|To the south you will find the mountains of Guamuhaya (historically known as Sierra del Escambray) where the old structures passively reflect on the surface, as a carbonated casque or an armored mountain. The group of mountains is divided into two by the Agabama River; the ones that belong to Trinidad can be seen to the west and the ones that belong to Sancti Spiritus are located on the east side.
This group of mountains, whose highest peak is Pico San Juan (1 156 meters) serves as a lookout from which we can see a series of ecosystems that stretch from the coast to the mountains. The vegetation is that of mogotes in the calcareous areas and that of stationary rain forests or montano on the schists of the higher areas.
Its flora is rich and divers, especially on the mountains of Trinidad, which is also a center for the diversification of Cuban fauna. You will see in this area the Cave of Martín Infierno, which has one of the biggest stalagmites of the world, 67 meters high and 40 meters in its base.
Because of its ecological importance, there are in this mountainous are outstanding places like Tope de Collantes, with perennial and very beautiful vegetation of montano rain forests. Equally outstanding is the great amount of species of orchids and beautiful arborescent ferns, as well as a fauna of invertebrates and birds.
Pico Portrerillo, with a varied vegetation and high endemism, also has a rich fauna and several populations of birds and invertebrates; while Cayo Caguanes, recently declared a Reserve of the Biosphere, is one of the most significant places from the ecological point of view for being located in a mangrove. The region also has an extraordinary system of caverns formed by 35 caves, among which, the most one outstanding one is Cueva Grande. Here you will be able to see Lake Martí with its rare privilege of being the only place in the world that serves as the habitat for fresh water sponges.