Several factors have influenced favorably on Cuba's high endemism, great diversity of its flora and fauna and the existence of breathtaking natural landscapes. Those factors are: multiple insularity, rainy tropical climate, large areas of serpentine and limestone, large stretches of quartz sand and a particularly-interesting geomorphologic structure, especially because Cuban territory has a high percentage of carbonated rocks in which all kinds of processes take place and where an impressive cavern system was formed. Huge salons and ample galleries, some of which are flooded, can be found in these cave systems, which are inhabited by a very typical fauna including arthropods, fish (some of which are blind), amphibians and reptiles, among others. You can also find aboriginal art in the form of beautiful cave paintings characterized by great symbolic and stylistic richness.
These cave systems are an excellent environment for both contemplative and adventure tourism for those interested in speleological programs and cave diving.
Cuba's flora is made up of more than 6,300 species, 51 percent of which is endemic, making the Island the main center of species diversification in the Antilles. There exist 33 areas of high plant endemism, classified in accordance with the characteristics of each group. The most notable endemic species include the cork palm (Microcycas calocoma), magnolia (Magnolia cubensis), Cuban belly palm (Colpothrinax wrightii), Moa's dracaena (Dracaena cubensis), Cuban pine (Pinus cubensis), melon-cactus (Melocactus matanzanus) and the carnivorous plant (Pinguicola lignicola).
The following is a list of Cuban endemic species grouped as Arboreal Formations, Shrub-like Formations, Herbaceous Formations and Vegetation Complexes.